External environmental acquaintance with the living body is executed by five sense organs namely netra (eye), karna (ear), nasa (nose), jivha (taste buds), and twak (skin)- S.Sh.1-15.

All dnyanendriyas i.e. sense organs are panchbhautic in composition. In spite of this fact, every indriya or sense organ perceives object/tanmatra of that mahabhuta from which it is originated or one which is predominant. For example, the eye is originated from teja mahabhuta and hence perceives the object of teja mahabhuta only i.e. it is capable of performing ‘rupagrahana’, i.e. visual perception only. An eye is not capable of perceiving senses like audio, tactile etc. Virtual dnyanendriyas or sense organs or centers of perception are minute and are located in brain and organs perceiving them like the eye, ear etc. are the instrumental sense organs or ‘adhishthana’ (Charaka Sh.1-138).

Charaka in Sutrasthana Ch. 8 has explained the functioning of Dnyanendriya. He has laid down panch-panchaka concept for this. It includes pancha dnyanendriya, predominant mahabhoota originating them, adhishthana, artha i.e. sense objects and buddhi i.e. interpreting brain center of that sense organ. It is as follows in case of Netra.


Sense organ Chakshurindriya
Mahabhuta Teja mahabhuta
Dnyanendriya adhishthana Netra (Eye)
Artha/ sense object Roopa tanmatra/sight i.e. perception of size, shape, colour etc. of an object.
Indriya buddhi / Visual centres. It is created by togetherness of Chakshurindriya buddhi i.e. visual centres in occipital cortex, mann (mind) and atma (soul)


Perception of an image is the function of drushti which is the location of Alochaka pitta. This sensation is conveyed through dhamanis to mann and atma through pranavayu and the sequence is responsible for the perception of an object. In this way the external object is perceived when atma unites/linked with mann; Mann unites with indriyabuddhi; Indriyabuddhi unites with tanmatra; Tanmatra unites with adhishthana; Adhishthana unites with mahabhuta; and Mahabhuta unites with minute virtual dnyanendriya located in the brain. In this process of perception of an object by eye, pranavayu and kapha located in shira play an important role. Healthy status of all sense organs depends upon homeostatic i.e. physiological conditions especially of pranavayu and tarpaka kapha. Once the above sequence is completed, then the image of a particular object is interpreted and perceived.

Role of Dosha-Dhatu-Mala

The living body is sustained by 3 dosha, 7 dhatu, and 3 mala. All body functions are controlled by dnyanendriya, karmendriya, mann, and atma (S.Su 15-3). Dosha-dhatu-mala has to stay in equilibrium, their deviation either from physiology or towards pathology; triggers genesis of diseases. Following passages will explain how homeostatic conditions of dosha-dhatu-mala become responsible for normal functioning of dnyanendriya like Netra.


Before considering the Samprapti of Netraroga, I would like to highlight the following important points.

Importance of equilibrium of Dosha-
The homeostatic condition of Dosha, Dhatu, and Mala is essential for maintaining the normal functioning of various Dnyanendriya, Karmendriya, Mann (mind) and Atma (soul). Their deviation either from physiology or towards pathology triggers genesis of disease (A.H.Su.1-20).

Six stages of Samprapti / Pathogenesis-
According to Sushruta( S. Su. 21-36), 6 stages are necessary for generating disease of a particular structure. They are Chaya (accumulation), Prakopa (excitation), Prasara (spread), Sthanasanshraya (localization), Vyakta and Bheda (complete manifestation of disease).

Importance of Srotovaigunya i.e. Abnormality-
The spreading vitiated Dosha get localized / settled / lodged wherever Kavaigunya / Srotovaigunya i.e. abnormality is present (S. Su. 24-10).

General Samprapti of Netraroga-
Dosha vitiated by various etiological factors; especially the ones specifically acting on eyes (caused by unwholesome diet and injudicious activities); when passes upwards through sira; occupy different structures like Vartma, Sandhi, Shukla, Krushna, Drushti and Sarva / all parts of eye; and then precipitate diseases of that particular structure only if Srotovaigunya is present there (S.U. 1-20, 21 and A.H.U. 8-1, 2; A.H.Ni.1-12).

In very few diseases Sushruta described some specific Samprapti e.g. Srava, Savrana Shukra, Ajakajata, Timira, etc. Timira, Kacha, and Linganasha are 3 main diseases of Drushtigata Roga causing partial or total blindness if not treated properly and promptly. Hence their specific Samprapti is described here.
Specific Samprapti / Pathogenesis of Timira / Kacha / Linganasha
Dosha, vitiated by various etiological factors / specifically some Timira generating dosha (Dalhana), when enters the Eye through sira and get lodged in the First Patala i.e. Tejojalashrita (due to pre-existing Srotovaigunya); generate pathology there i.e. Timira. If neglected / untreated, these Dosha become more and more intensified / aggravated and invade 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Patala and precipitate Kacha and Linganasha. The mild blurring of vision in the affliction of 1st Patala gradually increases leading to the visual loss in the 4th Patala.

Thus derangement of the environment in the vicinity of Tejojala i.e. aqueous humor is responsible for the development of Timira / Kacha / Linganasha. If the environment remains within the physiological limits, vitiated dosha shall not be able to get settled in the 1st Patala.


Why do you need a good Comprehensive Text Book of Shalakya Tantra?

I, Prof. Dr. Narayan J. Vidwansa, started my career as a teacher in 1977 in SHALYA-SHALAKYA TANTRA Department at Vidarbha Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, AMRAVATI (M.S.). Being a combined department, Shalakya always remained somewhat neglected. From 1980 onwards Shalakya department got separate entity with allocation of separate teaching staff. This pattern definitely helped in development of the subject and the department.

In these circumstances students eagerly searched for a good text book. The literature of Shalakya Tantra is scattered in Sutrasthana, Nidanasthana, Chikitsasthana, besides Uttara-Tantra of Sushruta Samhita; which is the principle and important Samhita as far as Shalya-Shalakya Tantra is concerned. Moreover, description of Etio-Pathology, features of a disease are given in one chapter and it’s management is given in a different chapter, either separately or combinedly with other diseases e. g. Sarvagata Netraroga are described in S.U.Ch.6 whereas management of all Vataja Sarvagata Netraroga is given in S.U.Ch.9. In Ashtanga Hrudaya and Sangraha also; though all Shalakya diseases are included in Uttara Sthana, their description and management is given in separate chapters.

Moreover, many diseases have very brief description with too much similarity in features; this causes more confusion. Students as well as teachers were compelled to search various compendia, commentaries and books / Samhitas; even for a minor reference to fulfil their eager to learn. Without proper guidance, students have to live with brief and vague references. I was also one of them. Over the span of two decades of my teaching career, I found students and teaching fraternity desiring for a book which has all required references and correct interpretation of ancient Ayurvedic text.

Aim of publishing Text Book of Shalakya

All these circumstances compelled me to write a Text Book of Shalakya which includes all the important references from Bhruhatrayi and Laghutrayi with correct interpretation of ancient Ayurvedic text along with all important diseases from Modern Ophthalmology, ENT as well as Dentistry. My dream was fulfilled in the year 2004 i.e. after 27 years of my teaching career.

My Marathi book “NETRAROGA VIDNYANA” was published at the hands of senior most Ophthalmologist Dr. S. M. Sathye Sir, retired H.O.D. Shalakya Tantra department, Tilak Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Pune in the auditorium of Amravati University, Amravati. I was overwhelmed with huge popularity of the book in Maharashtra resulting in subsequent 10th editions with more details. Response from the students encouraged me to write second volume on “SHIRO-KARNA-NASA and MUKHA-DANTAROGA VIDNYANA” in Marathi. It was published in 2010 at the hands of senior most Surgeon Dr. R.B. Gogte Sir, retired H.O.D., Shalya Tantra department, at NIMA hall of Tilak Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Pune. Presently it’s 6th edition is in circulation. (First 8 and 4 editions were published under “Anand Prakashana” and last 2 editions under “Vimal Vision Publication”.)

Here I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my beloved students throughout MAHARASHTRA for patronising my both books in increasing numbers.

I was fortunate enough to visit many Ayurvedic colleges throughout India as an examiner or as a resource person in seminars, conferences, teacher’s reorientation programmes etc. Interestingly during interactions with students out of Maharashtra, I was always asked about availability of either English or Hindi editions of my books. The response from students, scholars and teachers encouraged me to translate my books in English. With lot of hard work and grace of almighty Lord Dhanvantari, English version of “NETRAROGA VIDNYANA” and “SHIRO-KARNA-NASA and MUKHA-DANTAROGA VIDNYANA” was published in November 2015 and September 2016 at the 1st and 2nd International Conference of TAS (The Association of Shalaki) respectively at Belgavi (Karnataka) and Nadiad (Gujrat).

I am deeply indebted to the students throughout India for their overwhelming response, appreciation and acceptance of 1st Edition of both English Books. This encouragement gives me the strength to publish the 2nd editions of both English Books which are now available on http://drnarayanvidwansa.com/product-category/english-books/



  • Based on syllabus by Central council of Indian Medicine, New Delhi, for Final year B.A.M.S. course.
  • Very elaborative point wise detailed description of all Ophthalmological, E. N. T. & Orodental diseases from Ayurvedic and Modern Science in very simple and clear English.
  • All the important verses from Charaka, Sushruta, Ashtanga Hrudaya / Sangraha, Madhava Nidana, Yoga Ratnakar, Bhavaprakash, Dalhana, Videha, Indu etc.are included which is BENIFICIAL in solving M.C. Q.
  • Self-explanatory diagrams / sketches will definitely help in understanding the basic Anatomy. Similarly, coloured photographs are useful in understanding the conditions in detail.
  • Various complicated / confusing conditions and disorders are elaborately described and explained in detail by comparing them with Modern Science under the heading “AUTHER’S SPECIAL COMMENTS.” It will help in understanding the condition clearly.
  • One of my goals was to have Pharmaceutical preparations with ingredients which are easily and readily available; which are concise and easy to remember. ONLY such formulations are included in this book with some EXCEPTIONS.
  • Many statements, conditions, complications, contraindications described in Charaka, Shushrta and other Samhitas does not stand correct in the present most advanced scientific era. Those conditions could be the possible outcome in the era of Charaka, Sushruta i.e. 2000 to 3000 years back. Specific corrective instructions / procedures / measures are given by the Author in this book at the respective statement.
  • The context of knowledge changes with the changing technology and inventions and one has to keep pace with it. It is followed in this book.
  • At the end of last chapter, BRIEF DESCRIPTION of each disease along with principle of treatment is given in a TABULAR FORM. It is useful for better understanding, memorising and for differential diagnosis.
  • Readers should use this book as a launching pad for improving their knowledge and surgical skills for the benefit of the mankind.
  • Bestselling Text book in MAHARASHTRA.
  • Appreciated by the Teacher fraternity.
  • Beneficial to Post Graduate students also.


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Regards :
Prof. Dr. Narayan Vidwansa