|Prana vayu –
When it conveys the Chakshurendriya buddhi/ visual impulses to mann and atma, then only images are perceived. Indriyadhruk and poorana/nourishment are its important functions.
2. Udana vayu –
Bala and varnakruta are its functions. If vitiated causes chittabhransha and buddhibhransha (drushtibhransha), bluish, blackish discoloration and Urdhva – jatrugata vyadhi. It expresses various emotional feelings like pleasure, sorrow, anger, love, frustration etc on face. (Perhaps this is the reason behind calling eyes as mirror of emotions)
Vyana vayu – opening and closure of eyes, constriction and dilatation of pupil, circulation and propagation of rasa and rakta in all srotas are principle functions of this vayu. In presence of srotodushti it gets obstructed in srotas. It is vitiated by diseases of rasa, rakta, oja, and chetanadhatu; diarrhea, fever, aneamia; mental conditions like fear, sorrow, worry etc.
Responsible for equilibrium of entire body functions. It gives strength to Jatharagni. It’s deviation from equilibrium causes eye diseases.
Responsible for excreting the waste products. It has three properties namely yogavahi, vishada and daruna.
‘Vishada’-responsible for absorption of ‘kleda’ i.e. moisture causing dryness. Daruna-responsible for absorption of softness/ snigdhata causing hardness.
|Pachaka pitta –
Responsible for digestion of food material and segregation of dosha, rasadi dhatu, urine and stool. Disturbance of its equilibrium or it’s vitiation along with samana vayu and kledaka kapha, generates eye and other diseases.
Ranjaka pitta –
It generates raktadhatu from rasadhatu. Its deficiency causes anemia resulting in Karana / indriya daurbalya.
Sadhaka pitta –
Responsible for vigour i.e. sound physical and mental status; strong, healthy and well-nourished dhatus etc. It fulfills all wishes resulting in mental satisfaction. Its deficiency causes eye diseases due to weak and disturbed mental status as well as undernourished dhatus.
Alochaka pitta –
Alochaka pitta/alochaka agni is responsible for visualizing objects. Its vitiation causes visual impairment.
Digestion, body temperature, vision, hunger, thirst, appetite, luster, intelligence, bravery, patience, softness of body etc. are regulated by Pitta. It’s vrudhi or kshaya will cause disturbance in all these activities.
Homeostatic kledaka kapha, pachaka pitta and samana vayu are responsible for generating homeostatic Kapha which predominantly possesses madhura rasa.
-Unctuousness, healing, nurturing, nourishing, increasing strength, stability are the functions of this homeostatic kapha. Its deficiency causes faulty nourishment resulting in faulty functioning of various dnyanendriya, karmendriya etc.
-If madhura, amla and lavana rasa are ingested, kapha is nourished well whereas katu, tikta, kashaya rasa oppose genesis of prakruta kapha.
Tarpaka kapha –
Shira i.e. brain is the location of tarpaka kapha. Minute centers of various dnyanendriya, karmendriya etc are situated in the shira. When sensory impulses are carried to mann and atma by pranavayu, then only various sensations are perceived. These impulses are again carried to brain / motor centres in brain for executing various activities.
-All these centers are located in majja dhatu in shira. Very unctuous, nourishing and nurturing Tarpaka kapha is essential for stabilizing these excessive vatika activities as well as for its smooth, regular and normal functioning.
-Homeostatic Kapha is essential for generating rasa, mansa, meda, majja and shukra in homeostatic conditions. Its deficiency or vitiation causes faulty generation of these dhatu.
Marma in relation to Netra:
- Apanga marma– a sira marma, situated below the bhrupuchcha i.e. eyebrow, beyond the lateral corner of eye. Drushti gets destroyed in case of injury. It is vaikalyakara marma. (S.Sha. 6.28; A.H.Sha. 4.31,46,47 & 57)
- Avarta marma – situated deeply above eyebrows. When injured, dushti gets destroyed. (S.Sha. 6.28)
- Shrungataka marma –
Joining of nourishing dhamanis of nose, ear, eye and tongue is termed as shrungataka marma. They are 4 in number and the ayama i.e. height is equal to ones palm. This is dhamani type of marma and in case of injury person dies on the spot. (C.Sha. 4.34,42,61; S.Sha. 6.28)
4.Sthapani marma – this marma is between two eyebrows. Foreign body in this location should not be extracted. If the place of introduction of foreign body gets inflamed and the body is discharged on its own due to inflammation, patient remains alive. If the foreign body is kept undisturbed, he can stay alive for rest of his life. On the contrary, if the surgeon attempts to extract the body, the patient dies.
Netra and dushya:
The effects of vruddhi and kshaya/dushti of various dushya on eye are elaborated in the following table.
|Dushya||Sara / strength features||Vruddhi features||Kshaya-dushti features|
|Rasa||Prasanna i.e. satiated netra||Gaurava||Rukshta, shushkta, gauravata, margavarodha|
|Rakta||Snigdha / glistening, reddish, pleasant eyes and other body parts.||Reddish complexion, reddish eye, fullness of veins.||Rukshta, sirasheithilya, visarpa (cellulitis), pidaka (furunculosis) , nilika (pigmented naevus), vidradhi, arsha, arbuda, raktapitta, pittaja diseases.|
|Mansa||Sthira, gauravata, well nourished and strong||————-||Rouksha, toda, dhamani sheithilya, indriyadourbalya and general muscular weakness, arbuda, arsha, alaji.|
|Meda||Especially snigdhata, bulky / obese.||Anga-snigdhata i.e. glistening of body parts.||Rouksha, granthi, arbuda|
|Majja||Specifically snigdha / glistening eyes and other body parts; mahanetra / big sized eyes, strong.||Netre and anga gauravata||Bhrama (vertigo), timira darshana (darkness before eyes), murchcha (fainting), abhishyanda.|
|Shukra||Snigdha, pleasant kshirapurna-netra (glittering eyes); shweta danta, nails.||——————||——————–|
Rasa, rakta, mansa, meda, majja and shukra along with Oja plays an important role in keeping the eye pleasant, satiated, lustrous, glittering, vigorous, healthy, strong and well nourished (Oja means bala i.e. strength).
Oja is considered as the supreme essence of all the tissues and its presence is necessary for all their vital i.e. anabolic activities. (Ancient Indian Surgery)
The kshaya or dushti of this dhatus and oja will generate various diseases/ disorders. Oja becomes catabolized in expressing various emotions as well as talking or doing various physical activities. Similarly mourning, anger, fear are also responsible for adverse effects on oja.
Note: cases where dosha in ayatana of indriya are vitiated, sense organs tend to be functionless.
Features of sara – C.V. 8-103 to 110; S.Su. 35-16
Vruddhi features – S.Su. 15-18; A.H Su.11-7 to 11
Kshaya features –S.Su.15-13; A.H.Su.11-17
Dushti features –S.Su.24-8; A.H.Su.11-7 to 11
Netra and mala
The white and dense waste product generated through eyes is called as netradushika, which is a mala of mansa dhatu. Majjamala, which is snigdha, is excreted through eyes as well as through sweda, mutra, and purish; as a consequence, any obstruction to these waste products leads to diseases of eyes. Bhru/eyebrows are entitled as Asthimala which protect eyes from sweat from forehead (A.H.Sh. 6-63).
Netra and srotas:
Annavaha – these are 2 in number. The mulasthana – amashaya and annavaha dhamanis; Injury to them leads to total or partial blindness. Vitiation of jatharagni leads to vitiation of dosha. This vitiation of Agni and dosha leads to the generation of various eye diseases, ultimately precipitating total or partial blindness. (S.Sh. 9-12.)
Raktavaha – these are 2 in number. The mulasthana – yakrut and pleeha and raktavaha dhamanis; injury to them leads to red eyes ( S.Sh.9-12.)
Padagata srotas – A.H. suggests 2 large siras reach eyes from feet. The virya of oils etc and paste applied to feet reach the eyes. Hence feet should be protected with footwear; should be kept clean and such medicinal applications are made on feet for better health of eyes (A.H. U. 16-65, 66).